What Is Dry Or Wet Macular Degeneration?

When macular degeneration affect pigment epithelial and neuroepithelial cause detachment, can vision loss or visual distortion, can be attributed to the Chinese as looking faint vague”: when a small amount of bleeding into the vitreous opacities caused, in turn is a “clear shift clouds”: but if a lot of blood into the vitreous and cause sudden drop in vision who are classified as “blind violence” at home.

Macular degeneration mainly due to infirmity or dirty Qi declines Congenital deficiency, liver depression, and spleen deficiency. Spleen transport, the transport of spleen qi deficiency can not be, insufficient blood and body fluids metaplasia; kidney deficiency is agitation, weakness, and the main water reservoirs fine features dereliction of duty, resulting in water solution or phlegm retention. The pathological product of early macular degeneration demonstrated drusen the more for us. Phlegm-fire burns Yu Long-blood contact, because the liver stores blood, stagnation of liver blood deficiency, not wing head, liver Yu Jiusheng does not transfer heat, chemical burns network, in addition to the spleen is not the Blood, can also cause blood not Xunchang Road the overflow in the envelope, the outer envelope made of blood stasis stasis, phlegm aggravate the condition, caused by macular degeneration late phlegm, liver, blood stasis complicated clinical manifestations, making the eyes appear recurrent bleeding, bleeding and pathological neovascularization and scar formation.

What is the cause of age-related macular degeneration?

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has two type ‘type dry’ and ‘wet-type’ categories. Dry type is most common. Due to the light-sensitive cells of the retina slowly break down, resulting in the affected eye becomes blurred central vision. Cause of the disease is unclear, but the symptoms can worsen with age.

‘Type wet’ age-related macular degeneration is due to abnormal growth of blood vessels, causing blood and protein leakage, damage sensitive photoreceptor cells and lead to blindness.

The most common symptoms of dry age-related macular degeneration are slightly blurred vision, facial recognition, you may have difficulty reading or doing other things that need more light. Dry macular degeneration usually affects both eyes, but there is also a decreased vision while the other eye seems to be not involved.

Drusen macular degeneration is one of the most common early signs of dry. Drusen are yellow deposits under the retina, usually seen in people over the age of 60. Drusen can be found through a comprehensive dilated fundus examination.

Dry age-related macular degeneration can be divided into three phases, it can occur in one or both eyes

Early age-related macular degeneration: an early age-related macular degeneration patients seen several small drusen or a few medium-sized. This asymptomatic and vision loss.

The mid-term age-related macular degeneration: the medium-term age-related macular degeneration patients seen many medium-sized or one or more large drusen some fuzzy dark spots may appear in the center of the field, leading to read or do transactions require more light.

Late dry age-related macular degeneration: advanced macular degeneration in elderly patients with dry drusen in addition to the destruction, as well as the central area of the retina photoreceptor cells and supporting tissue, which leads to destruction of the fuzzy dark spots become larger and darker, so you more central vision loss, you may have to read and identify the difficulties face.


If dry age-related macular degeneration affects only one eye to your vision, you may not notice a significant change, because the other eye vision is good, you can still drive, read, and understand the details; only age-related macular degeneration involving when your eyes will notice changes in vision. If you have blurred vision, you should go to ophthalmology comprehensive dilated fundus examination.

Dry age-related macular degeneration early and mid points, had a similar wet stage it?

No. Wet age-related macular degeneration is the advanced age-related macular degeneration.

What is wet age-related macular degeneration?

Wet age-related macular degeneration is also known as neovascular or exudative age-related macular degeneration, abnormal vascular proliferation of choroidal neovascularization and retinal pigment epithelium through. Since neovascularization more vulnerable, easy bleeding or leakage of blood components, leading to retinal detachment, macular edema, and cause visual distortion or blind spots are formed, and then decreased vision, so wet age-related macular degeneration is a serious affect vision, everyday life and disease activity. With the development of wet age-related macular degeneration, rapid loss of central vision, patients may blindness in 2-3 months, and wet age-related macular degeneration can be said to be a late old age-related macular degeneration, far more than the severity of dry age-related macular degeneration .

Wet age-related macular degeneration What are the main symptoms?

Wet age-related macular degeneration is the early symptoms of visual distortion, advanced vision loss, blurred object seen; the whole field of view is not bright colors, the contrast is reduced; see middle dim or dark center of the object point, if your this vision changes or other conditions, should be immediate to the eye doctor, you need to complete a detailed eye examination.

Wet age-related macular degeneration in the end how serious?

Wet age-related macular degeneration caused more severe visual impairment, accounting for age-related macular degeneration causes severe visual impairment of 90%. Wet age-related macular degeneration patients with decreased vision, visual distortion and other symptoms of central scotoma serious impact on daily life skills, such as walking, cooking, housework, shopping and phone calls. Wet age-related macular degeneration disease progression is rapid, blinding rate, patients and society a heavy mental and economic burden. A study abroad show: the burden of disease wet age-related macular degeneration and even more than AIDS and cancer.

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Seriously impair vision limits the ability of life of elderly patients, reducing their self confidence or sense of independence, but also psychological health problems. The results of research showed that patients with low vision, difficulty in facial recognition and other life-related goals significantly increased, and the visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reduce the useful visual field loss, so their ability to independently perform daily household activities were seriously affected, the performance of commodity tag does not recognize, you can not determine the location of items. Visual dysfunction, the elderly prone to fractures, with poor visual function will increase the cost of home care. A study at the University of Birmingham, the United States showed that the development of visual impairment from mild to severe vision loss, the annual economic burden of patients will substantially increase from $ 3300 to nearly $ 40,000, an increase of nearly 12 times, where most of the costs are due home care, trauma and psychological recovery and generate indirect costs.

macular dry

With the severity of age-related macular degeneration increases investigations related vision quality of life and lower scores. A visual function questionnaire (NEIVFQ-25) showed that, reduce the quality of life of patients with age-related macular degeneration is often underestimated. Age-related macular degeneration can lead to quality of life in patients by 17% to 63% decline, the result with certain systemic diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and cerebrovascular close. Brody and other studies of 151 cases of age-related macular degeneration patients, about one-third of patients with varying degrees of depression, which is twice the community elderly. Rovner and other 51 cases of age-related macular degeneration patients prospective study found that 33% of patients suffering from depression, and poor vision; at the same time accompanied by systemic vision associated with physiological dysfunction, with depressive symptoms increase, depending on the dysfunction is more obvious. These psychological problems derived from patients who in the past could not be completed and can be completed on their very worthwhile activities, such as reading and walking, unable to recognize family and friends, the fear of blindness, high medical costs. An important reason in everyday life of the family and increasing social dependence and psychological barriers generated.

Dry age-related macular degeneration and wet age-related macular degeneration, which is more common?

Dry age-related macular degeneration is more common. All middle and late age-related macular degeneration dry age-related macular degeneration than 85%. However, in advanced age-related macular degeneration, which is about two-thirds of wet age-related macular degeneration, and almost all vision loss from advanced age-related macular degeneration, so wet age-related macular degeneration than dry age-related macular degeneration lead to more loss of vision.

Development of dry senile macular degeneration performance as wet age-related macular degeneration it?

Yes. All patients first with dry age-related macular degeneration before suffering from wet age-related macular degeneration.

Dry age-related macular degeneration can cause vision loss and does not develop into a wet age-related macular degeneration. Of course, dry age-related macular degeneration can suddenly become wet age-related macular degeneration, even at an early age-related macular degeneration when. There is currently no way of knowing whether or dry age-related macular degeneration when converted to wet age-related macular degeneration.

Macular Disease Foundation Australia

Australia Foundation macular degeneration (Macular Disease Foundation Australia, formerly known as: macular

Degeneration Foundation) is a charitable organization dedicated to reducing the incidence of macular degeneration and Australia caused Movies

ring. Foundation is committed through publicity and education, customer service, research and advocacy on behalf of and improves community

Awareness of eye disease macular degeneration class, and for all patients.

In Australia, macular degeneration class eye (including macular degeneration) has become a serious cause of blindness and vision loss *

The main reason for injury. Funded by the Foundation macular degeneration research has reached world advanced level.

Our ultimate goal is to find ways to prevent, treat and cure chronic eye diseases such manner.

Charitable organizations, foundations rely on social donations, bequests and fundraising activities to obtain operating funds to support

Which carry out the work. If you want to contribute financing to support our research or arrange bequests.

If you’d like more information, for support and guidance, or Sign up for our new briefing and invited to participate in the National Education and other promotional activities, please contact the Foundation by the query.

What is macular degeneration?

What incentive is macular degeneration?

How do you know they are suffering from macular degeneration?

Vision is one of the most valuable sensory perception of a man, we touch, experience and interpretation of the world channels.

Everyone needs to protect their eyes, especially when we are growing old age. In Australia, the macula

Degeneration has become a cause blindness and severe visual loss of major eye diseases that harm can not be ignored.

This manual provides you with general knowledge related macular degeneration. By reading, you’ll learn about the work of the eye

As a principle and an important function of the macula. This manual provides you explain macular degeneration, its impact on the vision to

And how to reduce the chance of disease. You can also learn how to recognize the symptoms of the diseases of the eye, which Treatment options and support services.

This manual is one of the series of books compiled by the Australian macular degeneration Foundation, aimed at raising public awareness of macular degeneration

Class eye awareness, reduce their incidence in Australia and its adverse effects caused.

Eyes How does it work?

The eye is like an old-fashioned film camera. Its front with the cornea, iris, pupil and lens,

Focus can post a video projection located on the back of the eye’s retina. Retina is very sensitive to light,

Like the film in the camera, the captured video transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain, and then add the brain

To analyze Legal blindness Retina Optic lens Cornea Iris

What is the macula?

You can read this manual when you need to use the macula.

There is a regional center of the retina is the macula. Regional director of macular central vision, allowing you to see objects

It details to identify most of the color. Read, recognize faces, drive, color and other differences need to be carefully

See the work must rely on the macula. Region is called the peripheral retina outside the macula, the function is to let you see

The overall shape of the object, or “proliferation” image, often referred to as side vision or peripheral vision.

What is macular degeneration?


Macular degeneration is several chronic degenerative retinal eye diseases collectively. It causes central vision loss,

But often they have no effect on the peripheral or side vision.

Opportunity macular degeneration normally associated with aging, in particular to 50 people over the age of eye disease that occurs most

many. For this reason, often referred to as macular degeneration related macular degeneration, called AMD. but,

Macular degeneration is not the elderly will inevitably suffer from eye diseases. Younger people will suffer from this Class eye.

Macular degeneration is no pain, will gradually deteriorate. While it can make a person become a “legal blindness” But it will not lead to complete blindness.

Macular Choroid Retina Macular degeneration common it?

Australians over 50 years, one person in every seven (equivalent to 100 million) in the presence of macular degeneration

Symptoms, which has about 17% (equivalent to 170,000 Australians) will be visually impaired. This is Australia

Chau biggest cause of legal blindness. In all there are 50% of cases of blindness are caused by macular degeneration.

How macular degeneration will happen?

Inside the eye with a layer of very special retinal pigment

Epithelium (RPE), macular degeneration is Influence This layer of cells eye diseases. RPE is like a wall, the retina and choroid compartment

open. Choroid retina is the main blood vessel network

Network. The main function is to provide camp RPE retinal

Support, and eliminate waste. At the same time, RPE also served points

Responsibility from the retina and choroid.

Early macular degeneration With the development of macular degeneration, retinal waste generated open RPE start under accumulation, the formation of point-like yellow,

Called drusen. Choroid Retina Macular Normal retinal Retinal pigment epithelial cells


Retina Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) Choroid Early macular degeneration

Glass film (Bruch’s membrane) Thickened, appears drusen


Drusen is the first symptom of macular degeneration but is likely to occur also unknown. Therefore, you need to

Regular eye exams and the macula, which is very important. Optometrist or ophthalmologist optometry using special equipment,

Be able to see inside the eye to check for early symptoms of macular degeneration (drusen).

A few drusen usually does not cause visual symptoms. Similarly, not all people who appear drusen

Vision will necessarily diminish. However, the presence of drusen increased in the later stages of macular degeneration

Probability. Late macular degeneration

Late symptoms of macular degeneration are the representative of vision loss due to RPE cell death, or can not stop pulse

A network of blood vessels under the retina film growth. Dry macular degeneration

After the RPE cell death, which is located above the retinal cell death also led to the retina part of the “missing

Loss. “This is commonly referred to graphic atrophy or” dry “macular degeneration, dry macular degeneration development is lagging

More slowly, gradually leading to vision loss. In all post-related macular degeneration cases, 33% are the dry

type. Part of the initial or dry macular degeneration in the future will develop wet type, it is a more ferocious eye. because

Here, if the sudden change in vision, you need to consult an eye doctor emergency, it is vital that a

point. Delay in treatment will only increase the risk of vision loss. Wet macular degeneration

When RPE cells were unable to prevent blood vessels in the retina choroid

When under growth would lead to wet macular degeneration. new

The blood vessels called choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

Although the rapid growth of new blood vessels, but very fragile, blood

Tube liquid under the retina and blood from the blood vessel wall permeability Out and scarring, leading to vision loss.

This is the kind of eye diseases in the most serious symptoms, Australia

Each year about 21,000 new cases diagnosed appears. Regard

Force variation is usually very sudden and very serious.

Wet macular degeneration

The rapid expansion of blood vessels, resulting in RPE rupture

Vigilance vision changes

Any sudden changes in vision or develop symptoms should promptly tell the ophthalmologist without delay. reservation

See a doctor will not take more than a week. Early detection is the key to the preservation of wet macular degeneration vision.

The earlier the treatment, the greater the possibility of preservation of vision. Delay treatment of vision loss can only increase Possibilities.

You see suspicious symptoms or sudden vision changes, you can use the Amsler Grid for self-testing.

This is an essential tool. You should use the Amsler Grid detection observed daily. but,

This test does not replace regular eye exams and macula. Amsler Grid is about as detailed in paragraph

What incentive is macular degeneration?

Macular degeneration incentives from both genetic and environmental aspects. Age, family history, smoking, eating and living

Information is the incidence of risk factors. In Australia, people over the age of 50, one in seven people who have this eye

Disease symptoms. The frequency of occurrence increases with age. Macular degeneration is also often hereditary. If the immediate family

In the case of patients, the incidence probability is 50%. Since at least 70% of cases with genetic, and therefore

Macular degeneration patients should tell their siblings and children, and encourage them to check the eyes and macula.

Related studies also show that smokers suffer from macular degeneration chance of non-smokers three to four times, at the same time,

Compared with nonsmokers, smokers early average age of five to ten years. Suction specific genetic predisposition

But will significantly increase the chances of smokers suffering from wet macular degeneration.

Eyes need nutrition

Studies have shown that diets to reduce macular degeneration and alleviate the worsening plays an important role. Balanced and contain large

The amount of antioxidants, vitamins and other nutrients in a healthy diet to maintain your eye health.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are all beneficial to the quality of eye health important antioxidants. These two substances in healthy

The macula has a very high content, can help protect the eyes. Spinach and beets (Junda dishes) and other deep green

Leafy vegetables contain these two ingredients, corn and pepper west natural yellow fruits and vegetables can also find

To. In addition, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium are important antioxidants help maintain the macula health.

Omega-3 fat acids on eye health also assumed an important role. all

Fish and shellfish contain omega-3, but salmon, mackerel

The content of fish, anchovies and trout and another oily fish is relatively high. With respect to the intake of high glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates higher proportion People, low GI carbohydrate intake more people suffering from macular degeneration.

The risk is smaller. Low GI carbohydrates include fruits, vegetables,

Whole grain cereals and whole grain bread.

While eating green leafy vegetables and certain medications What precautions?

Cabbage, spinach, beets (Jun of the dish), Brussels sprouts and broccoli are the best natural lutein

source. However, these vegetables contain large amounts of vitamin K, can interfere with blood thinners and some, such as warfarin

Features such drugs. For this reason, before you adjust the diet should first consult a doctor, especially

If you are taking warfarin. If you can not get enough lutein from the natural diet, you can Consider taking lutein supplements.

Carrot eyes do most beneficial?

Carrots are rich in vitamin A, it is an important nutrient needed for human health. However, the “carrot

Bu the most beneficial to the eyes, “this statement is actually a popular myth. Maintain eye health should be the primary election Deep

Green leafy vegetables, and eating the right amount of carrots, you can deploy balanced diet.

Must you eat fresh food?

Required. If there is no ready-made and other fresh food, frozen or canned vegetables and fish food are very square And then a good choice.

What should eat nuts?

Week to eat a small handful of nuts (number of tablets per day), you can make a balanced diet is more healthful. Select Not

Processing and unsalted nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, Brazil walnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and pistachios, may

Mixed together to eat. You can also crush nuts sprinkled on food.

Dietitians often recommend eating flaxseed (castor bean) seeds, etc., because they contain large amounts of essential

Fat acid component. You need to know is that the current seed and macular degeneration, and no studies of the relationship.

Some say margarine (margarine) harmful to the eyes. is this real?

In general, a healthy diet should limit fat intake and various oils. In Australia, margarine, and oil

Grease exactly how they relate to macular degeneration, the medical community is still not a unanimous conclusion. This aspect requires further Research. Nutritional content of food

The following lists the nutritional content of the food portion.

Daily nutrition intake

Examples of food content ¡ Examples of food content ¡

Lutein and jade

Beige Quality

6 mg ‡ ½ cup (65 g) 11.9 mg cabbage ½ cup (120 grams) Pumpkin 1.2 mg

½ cup (90 g) 10.2 mg spinach ½ cup (125 grams) brussels sprouts 1.2 mg

1 cup (30 g) raw spinach 3.7 milligrams ½ cup (80 g) 0.8 mg broccoli

½ cup (80 g) 1.9 mg ½ cup green beans (80 grams) of corn 0.6 mg

1 cup (55 g) raw lettuce 2 eggs 1.3 mg to 0.5 mg

Omega-3 Salmon 0.9-1.6 g 100 g 100 g 1.8 g 0.2 g of tuna

100 grams sardines 0.9 g 0.2 g 100 g shrimp

Vitamin C 45 mg of an orange No. 69 mg 47 mg pepper ¼ cup West

Vitamin E 7-10 mg of 20 (30 g) of almonds 7.8 mg 2.2 mg 1 spoonful of malt

7 8-14 mg zinc (100 g) ½ cup bran oyster 59 mg 3.5 mg

60-70 micrograms of selenium # 2 (8 g) Brazil nuts 80 g 24 (30 g) 5.6 g cashew nuts

National Health and Drug Research Council (NHMRC) recommended daily intake (RDI)

lutein no standard daily intake; daily intake of 6 mg from food.

¡ www.nal.usda.gov # μg representatives micrograms. 1 mg = 1000 g Help eye health supplements

Nutritional supplements are a sheet of vitamins, minerals and other substances. In general, the use of nutritional supplements

Maintain healthy macula is divided into two areas:

■ dietary supplement: If you can not get enough nutrition through diet, especially needed to stay healthy eyes

Nutrition, you might consider taking nutritional supplements. Whether you have been diagnosed with macular degeneration Resistance, can be taken.

■ AREDS2 formula supplements: diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration who can consider supplementing

AREDS2 (senile eye disorders Study # 2) Recipe nutrition.

You should consult a health care professional to find out which nutritional supplements that best meets your individual needs, which is very important Supplement the diet:

Lutein: If you can not diet (including dark green leafy vegetables) adequate intake of lutein, You can consider lutein supplements.

Omega-3: If you are unable to eat 2-3 times a week fish, fish oil supplements may be considered (Omega-3).

However, there is no conclusive evidence that taking fish oil and what kind of the actual way more fish

AREDS2 formula supplements:

Diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) people should be based on AREDS formula, consider taking appropriate

Supplements. Elderly eye study (AREDS) is continuing research and there is conclusive evidence only provide

Studies prove that intake of large doses of nutritional supplements for people diagnosed with AMD has a positive effect. AREDS

Original study found that based on specialized nutritional supplements of zinc and antioxidant formulations can delay AMD evil

Of: For one or both eyes has entered AMD mid or late monocular has been the case in the patient, AREDS with

The party can be reduced 20-25% risk of deterioration, and can delay vision loss.

AREDS study showed that the formula for non-AMD patients with very early AMD patients (such as only a small amount

Small drusen) into the patient’s eye or both eyes have no effect later.

May 2013, AREDS researchers published a number AREDS2, they follow up the results of the study. the study

Staff recommendation, AREDS original formula continue to be available, but the removal of β- carotene with lutein / maize

Huang quality instead.

Nutritional supplements can not cure macular degeneration. AREDS studies have shown that ingestion AREDS formula supplement

Agents may reduce the risk of eye disease worsening; formula supplements can not be terminated or repair damaged eye has been

Disease damage to eyes.

AREDS2 formula supplements are there?

You can select a range of products. You must see the product label to ensure the right ingredients and contains content.

Meets AREDS2 dose indicator?

Given the current regulations, the label usually has “take 1 tbsp daily or as directed” caption.

However, the dose indicator AREDS2 are usually more than one component of the spoon, so you need to consult a doctor.

AREDS2 or early AMD patients a role here?

AREDS study showed that the recipe for non-AMD or very early AMD (such as a small amount of tiny glass

Glass warts) patients without effect. These patients are more necessary to optimize the structure of the eye healthy diet.

Whether I should be taken with caution AREDS2 formula supplements?

Yes. When intake of large doses of vitamins and minerals, you must proceed with caution. You should do

Consult a doctor to see if supplements can interfere with other medications.

Such as cranberries or saffron and other nutritional supplements effective?

There is no conclusive evidence that cranberries or saffron can reduce the risk of macular degeneration or slow it down

How do you know they are suffering from macular degeneration?

You will not notice the early symptoms of macular degeneration (drusen appear), so check the eye and macular vital

important. Early onset macular degeneration usually are not easy to detect symptoms.

With the development of eye disease, you may have the following symptoms:

■ difficult to feel when reading or another work requires fine vision;

■ Video deformation distortion originally looked straight or curved corrugated;

■ recognizing faces difficult;

■ central field of vision to be dark or blank.

Need brighter lighting, sensitive to glare, decreased night vision, color vision loss, etc., may mean With eye problems.

Vision changes in any form can not be ignored, we can not simply think that this is the eye, “presbyopia.” Whether it is

Dry or wet macular degeneration, the earlier the diagnosis, the sooner you can take steps to slow down the development of eye diseases. especially

Which is wet macular degeneration, early start of treatment, the greater the possibility of preservation of vision?

Must let the eye care specialist and macular eye exams, and follow-up regularly review their recommendations.

If sudden changes in vision or the onset of symptoms, you should immediately see a specialist ophthalmology, can not be delayed

(Within one week).

Early detection and early intervention is the key to the preservation of vision.

Visual acuity visual distortion (distortion) decreased contrast sensitivity dark spots (central blind spot)

Macular degeneration diagnosis method

Dilated pupils

Eye care specialist may use eye drops to enlarge your pupils to be able to fully observe and inspect

Inside the eye retina. Dilated pupils after a few hours, your vision may be blurred. Pupil returned to close Before shrinking, you can not drive.

Retinal image

This is a photographic technique optometrists and ophthalmologists typically use dedicated check retina. Retinal image

To see details of the retina, the eye can be used as the basis for future comparative examination.

Fluorescein angiography

If the ophthalmologist suspected presence of wet macular degeneration, they generally use fluorescein angiography for further adjustment

check. Doctors fluorescent dye injected into the blood vessels from the arm. Dye quickly reach the eye, and with the blood in the retina

Film circulation. Doctors can be observed any abnormal situation, find the damaged blood vessels. At the same

When a camera with a special filter will take a series of photos. The whole process takes a few minutes.

Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan has become routine diagnosis and management of wet macular degeneration

Standard procedures. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses light to generate extremely high precision retina Organization tomography.

Before heading to eye care specialists at the examination, you should find out whether there are any special requirements. E.g,

After checking whether you can drive home yourself.

Amsler Grid is an essential tool for self-monitoring, you can use it to discover whether changes in visual acuity and macular

Degeneration. You may notice vision changes include image distortion (straight lines become wavy), shadow

Or blank. Amsler Grid can not be used as medicine for diagnostic purposes, can not substitute for a regular eye check

check. Amsler Grid in use process, if the sudden change in vision, you should immediately tell

ophthalmologist. Amsler Grid test were your two eyes, each eye to identify possible The problem. This is a very important step in this test.


Amsler Grid function is to detect the symptoms of macular degeneration. It does not replace a regular basis by the eye care specialist Your eyes checked.

Early detection is the key to the preservation of macular degeneration vision. If you have concerns about your vision changes,

Should immediately ophthalmologist advice, do not delay.

Foundation with magnetic backside Amsler Grid.

You can secure it on the refrigerator door for visual inspection every day.

Look normal vision eye care specialist immediately

If you see wavy lines or squares twist

Bending stress or blurry or defect,

This may be a symptom of macular degeneration.

Sudden vision changes how to do?

Do not delay, immediately see eye

Care experts.

Instructions: Do you usually wear removal of reading

Wearing glasses or contact lenses; The square table lift to the eye height,

Distance to maintain normal eye when reading

from; cover one eye. With uncovered

Eye gaze central square black spots

(Make sure the other eye completely

Covered) Replace the eye, repeat the above steps.


There is no cure for macular degeneration. However, the relevant studies have found that diet and lifestyle changes, including

Taking proper nutritional supplements may slow the deterioration of macular degeneration. In any diet or lifestyle change

Before the way, you should consult your doctor.

Dry macular degeneration can be cured?

There is no medicine can cure treatment for dry macular degeneration. Researchers are a lot of experiments RESEARCH The study, hoping to find a cure.

Wet macular degeneration can be cured?

Currently, there are several medical treatments of wet macular degeneration means. These treatments can not completely cure diseases of the eye, its head

The standard condition is stable, allowing patients to maintain optimum vision as long as the possible period of time. For some people

That such treatment can improve vision.

Wet macular degeneration is excessive blood vessel growth beneath the retina, leading to bleeding, bleed and cause scarring. This

These problems led to severe loss of central vision quickly. If not treated, it will become a permanent decline. Artery

Endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) leading to bleeding and angiogenesis major expansion protein. in order to

Slow or stop this process, the eyes may need to inject a variety of drugs aimed at blocking protein production

Object (called anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, or anti–VEGF). Clinical trials have shown that the use of anti-angiogenic factors

After medication, the vast number of patients that can save vision.

This anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs intraocular injection administration. The initial treatment, usually a monthly injection

Times, continuous injection of three months. After injection of indefinite duration, in order to control diseases of the eye. Continuous infusion frequency

Depending on the individual circumstances of the patient, the patient decided after consultation with the ophthalmologist.

Lucentis is registered in Australia for the first anti-angiogenic factor medicament for the treatment of wet age-related macular

Degeneration (AMD). Drug Administration (Therapeutic Goods Administration) has been granted Quasi ranibizumab use. The drug in August 2007, included in the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme).

Eylea for the treatment of wet AMD and developed anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs in April 2012 in

Drug Administration (Therapeutic Goods Administration) registered and has included drugs

Benefit plan (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme).

Avastin® (bevacizumab)

Avastin was originally developed for the treatment of certain cancers and to develop and register drugs. Pharmaceutical Administration

(Therapeutic Goods Administration) has not been officially registered and approved it can be used for eye treatment

Treatment, so-called “off-label” therapeutic agent in the treatment of wet macular degeneration. In Australia, Avastin

A typical use is for those who follow the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (Pharmaceutical Benefits

Scheme), are not eligible to use the patient Lucentis or Eylea two approved drugs.

You should consult an eye doctor for information about the drugs which best suits your personal condition. However, whether you choose

Choose which drugs, the following applies:

■ The whole process is not very long, usually carried out in a specialist clinic. Some patients may also It will be treated in day clinics.

■ To go to an ophthalmologist at the appointed time for treatment. Even vision seems to be no problem, do not absence.

■ continued use Amsler Grid every day, observe their visual acuity. To the eye were measured two

test. Observation during the injection treatment is very important, which is also included in the injection interval or increase

After the injection is stopped.

■ Any sudden change in vision must be treated as an emergency, you should tell the ophthalmologist immediately, regardless of whether it is

Receiving injections. Do not wait until the next appointment time to take action.

■ Even stable or improved vision, treatment must be continued.

■ Unless ophthalmologists recommend, not those who do not interrupt treatment.

■ Injection treatment is often no time limit, the purpose is to maintain the vision.

■ Given the extraordinary injection therapy, if you have concerns about injection therapy, or after the injection occurs

Problem, we must promptly tell the ophthalmologist.

Different vision and maintain anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drug effects, patients receiving PDT in the first six months,

Vision will continue to decline. After the patient’s vision usually tends to become stable, and does not continue to deteriorate eyesight

Severely impaired. For this reason, PDT is generally not used for general treatment of AMD.

This treatment is sometimes with an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs simultaneously, mainly for people with vein

Patients with neovascular macular degeneration, because this type of macular degeneration sometimes can not completely rely on the anti-blood

Tube growth factor drugs to stabilize.

PDT is a two-stage treatment process to a photosensitive drug (Visudyne, Visudyne) with low pulse

Chong cold laser embodiment. Abnormal area of the laser occurs in the retina, closed, terminate or slow down errors

Often retinal development and expansion of blood vessels. Within 24-48 hours after the administration should avoid the sun.

Laser photocoagulation therapy

This therapy uses high-energy light beams of light focused heat retina and thus destroy and closure has exuded Blood vessels.

The laser will not only destroy the emerging vascular leakage but also destroy new blood vessels near the retina. because

Here, this treatment is mainly used for the treatment of non-central field of vision bottom of neovascularization, and these patients then

Cases small. Because the disease recurrence rate of 50%, and therefore must be closely monitored after surgery by an ophthalmologist Views

Police, in order to decide whether there is a need for further treatment.

Related wet macular degeneration treatment options, you should decide after discussion with the ophthalmologist.

Cope with vision loss The challenge

As adapt to the new environment will take the time to adapt to vision loss is no exception. You have to pick from incredible

A variety of different feelings that reality. Part first experience of vision loss will feel and live their daily lives

Moving everywhere challenge. However, relying on outside support and proper guidance, you can overcome these challenges,

And to maintain the quality of life and independence.

Low Vision Response Plan

The first step to deal with life after vision loss is to control the situation. Develop a plan, consider how dimension

Support quality of life and independence, this is a very critical step. A good plan should include the following things item:

✓ detection and evaluation: their low vision to conduct a test and evaluation, which is to develop coping strategies

And personal support needed to start the best choice.

✓ guidance, advice, and support: a variety of low vision services solutions allow you to manage daily life, including

Including the use of auxiliary equipment and technology can help keep your quality of life and independence.

Hallucinations – Bonner syndrome

Visually impaired people will see visions, and also know that this is untrue, this phenomenon is generally described as

Bonner syndrome (Charles Bonnet Syndrome – CBS). Sometimes referred to as “phantom”

Sometimes also known as “ghosting”, these visions might be simple repeating pattern, it may be very detailed

People, animals or image building. Severe loss of vision in humans, about 30% reported seeing very realistic

And detailed illusion. See phantom reason is when a person of vision loss, the brain tries to fill Movies

As part of the vacancies, as compensation.

If you experience phantom appears, you must tell the ophthalmologist, this is very important. Foundation specially prepared

Bonner information about a syndrome is available upon request. Your family doctor can explain this information,

Or to tell their friends and family, and other health care professionals.

Visual health checklist *

While you can not change family history, you can not stop aging, but the following suggestions may help you reduce

The risk of macular degeneration:

■ Check the eyes, but also to check the macula;

■ Do not smoke;

■ maintain a healthy lifestyle,

Weight control, regular exercise;

■ diet healthy and balanced diet;

■ 2-3 times a week to eat fish, eat dark green day

Fresh fruits and vegetables each week insisted

Eat some nuts. Control of fats and oils


■ possible, choose low glycemic index (GI) of

Carbohydrates, avoid high GI carbohydrates;

■ consult a doctor, consider taking some appropriate nutritional supplements;

■ Use the Amsler Grid detect macular degeneration symptoms every day;

■ adequate protection when exposed to sunlight the eyes of young people to do likewise.

* Before changing any diet or lifestyle, you should first get a doctor’s guidance.

Disclaimer: The contents of this manual at the time of publication Australia has macular degeneration Foundation confirmed correct. While we strive in the preparation of this manual carefully, but

The reader should consult a doctor to get medicine advice. Australia macular degeneration Foundation for any errors or omissions in this publication exists is not responsible for the interruption of service,

Utilization and losses resulting from the use of this publication and also takes no responsibility for, and makes no warranty relates to this publication, express or implied. January 2014

If you’d like more information, or to obtain support for a free letter.

How To Convince Boss

When to understand the other party, seek to offer play, praise, honor or pretentious match up and other techniques to establish a deep friendship and trust, further affect his ideas, decisions.how to convince boss

Millennium grown in wisdom, it is clear that, to be successful persuasion, by no means the first step in sharpening the tongue, but start the wind blows, try to ingratiate themselves with each other, collecting clues have a chance of winning. Want to persuade, never began to do business American Consulting International (DDI) Development cum Marketing Associate place there is a profound insight. India vs Australia Live Streaming

Looking back nine years ago, at the beginning turn into human resources from the aviation sector, fine-featured, articulate, she is easily able to knock on the door of the customer, however diligent call window, and to provide research reports, does not mean you can let the other party willing pay, “over half a year, I suddenly found that every time talked happily, my customers are very nice, but a case could not sell!”

Do not understand why “good atmosphere, the outcome is always cruel,” while viewing the performance, in front from Singapore flying with the highest person in charge of before, wronged tears. At this time,

“You’re the wonder is not their hard for a long time, customers do not buy do not say that I would like to ask you, if u is that personal data, under what circumstances, u think he will? tell you the truth “?

because this speech, it is decided to change to suitably and took out interviews to get rid of a table taking notes sentences separated business habits. When she wearing style according to customer, share daily life with each other, a true friend to the road after treatment, they began to hear the truth, and thus find the opportunity to cut into the performance gradually on track.

Like almost all business related to, takes these enterprises deal with window, they could be a performer or a project team, permissions may not direct day to listen, but often the first line of the gatekeepers: one can decide whether to lead you started, on the one hand, to provide critical transaction information.

Therefore, the general manager of always treat them as partners sharing weal and woe. “Let customers’ sense enough heart,” not just with the usual interaction, at the critical moment, can you help him in time is the key! ”

For this reason, her cell phone 24 hours standby, the initiative to help each other find resources, and so that customers get the boss positive angle, help him find a countermeasure, planning all activities. Even when flaws occur, but also willing to help him bear the blame on her own, to let him pay out a perfect report card. “Often when we are finishing an activity, the customer did not take long for a promotion, he trusted us, and with his soaring, we are more likely to become long-term partners.”

Get a window, and then understand the key figure “decision ordering”

when you can get these “internal experts” (internal Coach), can often clear case needs, budget, direction than others, or may also be the first step to master preferences “key people” when making decisions.

As the focus of the exam to know the score, not only to avoid “blind men feeling the elephant,” but also to “do more with less.” On the study persuaded common “social judgment theory” (Social Judgment Theory), the people in accordance with past experience and personal level, in the heart is divided into “receiving area”, “rest area” and “area denial” 3 range, if you can hit the “receiving area” project more, to convince the “key players” the better the effect. Such as decision-makers care about is the budget, whether to talk about creativity, quality, marketing or path, the cost can be fastened, in keeping with his knife to spending a “receiving area” will be able to easily grab set high.

3-D Printing

3D printing certainly hope that when the printing speed, the faster the better, but sometimes have to slow down the printing speed, otherwise it will affect the print quality or printing fails, so this time will introduce 5 Ge you need to reduce the printing speed of the case.3-d printing

Make 3D models print out, we must first turn stl format, but now there are many online platforms offer a variety of free stl model download, but you know do not know the fact, even stl format model, there may not print out? This time it will briefly about 4 Ge inspection stl model can 3D print out points.

6 3D shorten the printing time setting

By 3D Printing Lab, 26 June 2016 when 3D printing we want to shorten the printing time, but not as long as the Print Speed will affect the printing time, and other settings can also affect the printing time. This time it combines some of the following can speed up printing time setting.

3D printing method to solve the model Alice By 3D Printing Lab, 22 June 2016 when 3D printing, regardless of the column printed PLA, ABS or even other print materials, are there possible circumstances while Alice appear. To avoid or reduce the Alice issue , in fact, nothing more than to use to look at presentation 9 method.

3D printing and set the Print Speed Travel Speed respectively By 3D Printing Lab, 20 June 2016 in 3D printing software settings Print speed parameter, many people will not tell Print Speed and Travel Speed, and two speed settings to print out the 3D greatly influence the quality of the model, this time simply to tell you about it!

Last introduced pusher method of operation and types, this time will introduce the issues related to the pusher, is the 3D printer Cause nozzle obstruction.

Understanding your 3D printer pusher (extruder)

Understanding your 3D printer pusher (Extruder) By 3D Printing’s the Lab, 13 June 2016 3D printer in one of the most important of the part is a pusher (Extruder), its role is to print out the print material. So everyone on the pusher how deep know about it? This time will be a brief introduction.

Why is the phenomenon that occurs when the so-called Elephant Foot 3D printing By 3D Printing Lab, 8 June 2016 may occur when the phenomenon of so-called elephant foot 3D printing, 3D printing that is out of the bottom of the model slightly protruding , this phenomenon is sometimes quite difficult to solve. We take a look at the causes of this phenomenon and ways to avoid.

Have you ever tried to print a 3D model when in the face of the filling material (infill) appear like the above named The weak Infill the situation it? If the above weak situation of infill will look at, because the filling material 3D printing have bad influence, 3D printing to prevent leakage of material.

Retraction function to help you BY 3D Printing’s the Lab, 1 June 2016 Retraction (Chinese called retraction) in 3D printing is an essential function, which can prevent the print plastic material from the nozzle leaked so print out 3D model has better print quality.

we have found no color set in some 3D printing software to print material or dual parameter, a man named Purge Wall (directly or called Wall) of feature lets you choose? Purge Wall Poweichongyao when this feature to print two colors or two materials in 3D.

There is a gap between the border and how to solve the filler – 3D printing problems 3D printing problem -. How to solve the border between the filler and voids By 3D Printing Lab, 23 May 2016 Sometimes 3D printing time, 3D model of the border (outline) and filler (infill) between there will be a number voids So how to solve this 3D printing problem?

CHEVROLET “Space. Spirit. Splendor. ’60 Chevrolet!”

For 1960, Chevrolet entered the compact car market, as did its key competitors. However, the marketing strat- edgy resulted in a different car from the others.chevrolet automatic

While Ford and Chrysler went very much the conventional route, with a front engine (inline six-cylinder), rear wheel drive auto- mobile, Chevrolet chose to combat the main competitive threat, Volkswagen, head-on.

An all aluminum, air cooled, horizontally opposed six cylinder engine was chosen to power the small, rear wheel drive car that featured full “Quadri Flex” independent suspension. Interiors were gen- really sparse but did offer sporty features like bucket seats, gauges, and vinyl upholstery. While styling was more conventional than the VW, the sporting connotation implied by the Corvair style was appealing to buyers.

Initially, 4-Door Sedans were the only of- feelings, with 2-Doors coming on board at mid-year. How- ever, a 4-Door was something that VW didn’t offer, and as a result nearly three-quarters of all Corvairs sold were 4-Door models. The chosen strategy worked, as first-year sales of over 250,000 were recorded.

The best news for GM was that unlike its competition, the Corvair did not take away very many sales from the maker’s traditional line of cars. With the Valiant and Falcon being essentially smaller versions of their manufacturers’ big cars, they cannibalized sales of those full- size models.

The Corvair was distinctive enough to generally pull sales away from those who would have bought imported cars or smaller domestic models like the Rambler. In that re- spect General Motors and Chevrolet had a success.

Full-size and Corvette models received the period- typical annual styling changes needed to differentiate model years. The Corvette received mostly trim and detail changes. Full-size models sported a toned-down version of their gull-wing tail fins.

At the front end, they lost the vents above the headlights that somehow seemed to visually lighten the front end, and give it a cleaner look. As for model changes, a 2-Door Hardtop returned to the BelAir line, after a one-year absence.

Finally, a new Fleetmaster sub-series was added to the base Biscayne models. Essentially this line was intended for fleet buyers, and it lacked amenities such as dual sun visors, electric windshield wipers, a cigarette lighter, and front arm rests.